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语 调 (升 调 和 降 调)  

2012-05-20 08:36:20|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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       英语的语调总的特点是,全句的调子一般都是由高逐渐降低,语调主要表现在句末,升调和降调通常分别用“↗”和“↘”来表示。

(1)升调

升调常用来表示不肯定,语意未完,或表示礼貌,常有含蓄、委婉、安慰、虚心征求意见等意味。升调的用法可归纳为以下五种情况:

①一般疑问句通常用升调。

Is he `making a ↗kite?

Are they `cleaning the ↗classroom?

Was the `traffic `very ↗busy?.

Does your `uncle `like `making `things, ↗too?

Did he `go `there `alone `last ↗night?

Must we `wash our `clothes ↗now?

Has your `father` finished the `work ↗yet? 

②数数、列举事物或列举一连串的动作时,除最后那个并列成分用降调外,前面所有的并列成分都要用升调。

`Let’s `count our `new ↘books. ↗One, ↗two, ↗three, ↗four, ↘five. `Oh, we have ↘five new books.

We’d `like a `bottle of ↗coke, `two `bottles of `apple ↗juice, a ↗hamburger and `two ↗cakes.

`John `likes ↗running, ↗swimming and ↘skating, but he `doesn’t like playing ↗football, ↗basketball or ↘volleyball.

He `got ↗up, `got ↗dressed, `brushed his ↗teeth, `washed his ↗face, `had his ↗breakfast, and `then `quickly `went to ↘school.

The `old `man `came ↗in, `asked for a `cup of ↗tea and `sat `down at a ↘table. 

③选择疑问句的语调分为两个部分,or前的部分用升调,or后的部分用降调,记成“前升后降”。

Is her `answer ↗right or ↘wrong?

Were they in the `high ↗jump or the `long ↘jump?

Would you `like a `cup of ↗tea or a `glass of ↘milk?

Do you `go to `school ↗late or ↘early?

`Which `colour do you `like `better, `light ↗blue or `dark ↘blue?

`Which do you pre`fer, `going to the ↗cinema or `going ↘swimming?

④反意疑问句的语调也得分两种情况:若说话者对所陈述的内容没有把握,想询问对方这一廉洁是否正确,则陈述句部分用降调,简略问句用升调;若说话者对所陈述的内容已经很有把握,只是想要对方同意自己的观点,或是想从对方那里得到证实,则前后两部分都用降调。

--Your `uncle is ↘tall, ↗isn’t he?    --↘No, he’s very ↘short.

You `like ↘apples, ↗don’t you?

He `went to `London with his ↘family, ↗didn’t he?

-- You `won’t `go `there to↘morrow, ↗will you?   -- ↘Yes, I ↘will.

-- His `sister has `never been to ↘Beijing, ↗has she? -- No, she↘hasn’t.

  -- It’s a ↘fine day, ↘isn’t it?  -- `Yes, it ↘is.

It’s `quite a `nice ↘picture, ↘isn’t it?

You were `born in `19`89. So you are ↘fifteen, ↘aren’t you? 

⑤含状语从句的复合句的语调也要分两种情况:若主句在前,从句在后,主句结束时意思已比较完整,则通常用降调,整个句子读完时也应该用降调;但是,若从句在前,主句在后,则常常是“前升后降”。

I was `drawing a ↘picture when my `mother `came ↘back.

`When she `got to the ↗station, the `train had `already ↘left.

(2)降调

在英语句子中,降调的使用比升调更为广泛,它表示肯定、决断、坚决或终结,但有时含有生硬、不容质疑的意味。降调的用法可归纳为以下七种:

①陈述句用降调:

`Lucy is `cleaning her ↘bedroom.

`Li `Lei `doesn’t have a ↘watch.

I `like ↘swimming.

`Mary `wrote a `letter to her `friend `last ↘night.

I’ve been to `Bei`jing `only ↘once. 

②特殊疑问句也用降调:

`Whose is `this ↘coat?

`What `happened to her ↘car?

`What have you `done with your my ↘bike?

`Which `shirt do you ↘like?

`Where does your `English `teacher ↘come from?

`When is `Teachers’ ↘Day?

`Why `didn’t `Jim `come to `school ↘yesterday?

`How `long have you been at `this ↘school?

`How `soon will they `finish the ↘work? 

③表示命令的祈使句也常用降调:

`David, `open the ↘door.

`Go and `ask your ↘father.

`Put `on your ↘coat.

`Don’t `throw it on the ↘floor.

`Don’t `put your `feet on the ↘desk.

`Don’t `run `so ↘fast.

`Let’s `go to the ↘zoo.

`Let’s `go and `have a ↘look. 

④问候用语常用降调,以示真诚:

Good ↘morning.

Good ↘evening.

Good ↘afternoon.

How ↘are you?

⑤感谢用语也常用降调,以表示诚挚的谢意:

↘Thank you.

`Thanks a ↘lot.

`Thank you `very ↘much.

⑥感叹句用降调:

What a ↘lovely day!

What an ↘exciting sports meeting!

What a ↘terrible day I spent today!

`How ↘hot it is today!

`How ↘beautiful the flowers are!

`How ↘hard all the workers are working!

⑦在并列句中,并列连词and, but, or等的前后两上分句都用降调:

We `come to `school by ↘bus and he `comes by ↘bike.

She `likes ↘English, but she `needs ↘help.

`Let’s ↘run, or we’ll be `late for ↘school.

I `couldn’t `sleep `well `last ↘night, so I’m `very `tired to↘day.

 

(3)特殊语调现象

在日常口语中,人们除了使用规范的语调外,还经常灵活地运用语调,以表达自己的不同态度、感情、情绪、意图以及隐含意义。

①不同语调的“yes”

↘Yes. (降调表示同意对方的观点)

↗Yes?(升调表示疑问,意为“真的吗?”或“是吗?”。若在回答对方的呼唤时使用,则意为“什么事?”或者“怎么啦?”)

②两种味道的“all right”

`All ↗right.(升调,正常的语调,意为“好吧”)

`All ↘right! You `shall re`pent ↘this.(降调,带有威胁的口气,意为“好!以后不要懊悔!”)

③两种味儿的感谢用语

↘Thank you.(降调,表示真诚的感谢。)

↗Thank you.(升调,出于礼貌而说的客气话。)

       ④你喜欢哪种问候?

Good ↘morning.(降调,此乃真诚的问候)

Good ↗morning.(升调,这是较熟的朋友之间漫不经心的问候)

       ⑤特殊疑问句用升调表示亲切、礼貌、友好和关切。

`What is your ↗name?

`What can I ↗do for you?

`How are you, ↗Lily?

 ⑥祈使句用升调表示委婉客气的请求。

`Come `in and `have a `cup of `tea, ↗please.

`Close the `window,↗please.

`Beg your ↗pardon.

 ⑦陈述句用升调表示疑问、抱歉或含蓄的隐含意义。

You have a `new ↗watch!

You `mended my ↗clock.

I `can’t `help you `this ↗evening.

I `don’t `think ↗so.(句意为“我不这样认为”,但隐含意义却为“我把握不大”。)

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